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Senior co-living:Does it work?

NEW HOLLAND, Pa. >> Deep in the rolling farmland of Lancaster County, Pa., sits an experiment meant to address two of the great, looming crises of American aging: loneliness and access to safe, affordable senior housing.

The Thistledown Co-living House, built in New Holland a little over a year ago with the help of community volunteers, is a way for lower-income seniors to share space and living expenses while having access to a large retirement community operated by Garden Spot Village, a senior housing provider affiliated with the Mennonite Church.

The 4,000-square-foot house has private bedrooms and bathrooms for five people along with spacious common areas, including a modern kitchen, living room and adjacent meeting room, and a loft. One bedroom is empty due to a recent death, but the others are filled by four women in their 70s who are healthy enough to live independently. Strangers when they moved in, they now call themselves the “sisters of Thistledown.” They wistfully mention their friend who died. “I always prayed for a sister,” she told them, “and now I have four.”

That kind of connection was what CEO Steve Lindsey hoped for when he began toying with the idea of co-living at Garden Spot Village. He sees isolation, which is often worsened by poverty, as a health risk that shortens life. “We believe firmly that we’re all created to live in community … that we are our best selves when we’re living in healthy relationship to other people.”

Two experts on senior living said Thistledown is unusual even though the industry knows affordability is a problem as a wave of baby boomers enters older age. A report released in April in the journal Health Affairs estimated that 7.8 million Americans age 75 and up will be unable to afford assisted living in 2029.

Marc Cohen, co-director of the LeadingAge LTSS Center UMass Boston, said the Garden Spot Village pilot program is appealing because it combats isolation, likely will make residents feel safer and allows residents to split costs.

Beth Burnham Mace, chief economist for the National Investment Center for Seniors Housing and Care (NIC), expects to see many new models of shared living as boomers age, including more intergenerational family living and sharing space with younger people such as college students.

While many older people say they want to age in place, Lindsey thinks that reflects naivete about the challenges of aging, especially isolation.

He’d been reading about big co-living projects aimed at millennials, many of whom like the idea of sharing space and paying lower rent, and he remembered “The Golden Girls,” a TV show about four mature women living together in a big house. The problem with sharing a house in older age, he thought, was that everyone is at the mercy of the homeowner’s health. What if Garden Spot Village was the landlord?

Established in 1996, Garden Spot is a nonprofit, continuing-care retirement community that provides apartments, free-standing homes, assisted living and skilled nursing care for close to 1,000 people. Residents pay an entry fee of $90,000 to $450,000, and rent for independent living ranges from $1,300 to $2,626 a month. Higher levels of care are much more expensive. Amenities include restaurants, exercise equipment, activities, food grown on-site, a wood shop and well- maintained grounds and common spaces. Opportunities to volunteer abound because Garden Spot wants to foster a sense of purpose.

Lindsey was well aware that many older people, who don’t have homes to sell for the entry fee and live on Social Security payments alone, cannot afford Garden Spot Village, a mission-driven organization meant to “enrich the lives of older adults as an expression of Christ’s love.” He saw a need for more socioeconomic diversity.

Initially, he wanted to serve older people eligible for government subsidies, but quickly decided the government was already oversubscribed and uninterested in new providers.

It helps that Garden Spot is in a community rich with builders, including volunteers with Mennonite Disaster Services. Volunteers and clubs offered to help. It cost around $300,000 to build Thistledown, about half what it would have cost without volunteers. Garden Spot and other organizations paid for the building.

Residents must have incomes of $25,000 or less — the average Social Security payment in the U.S. is $1,404 a month or $16,848 a year — and pay 30% as rent. Lindsey says that’s enough to cover monthly costs, with some left over for home maintenance.

Obviously, those numbers would present problems for organizations that operate in more expensive, less volunteer-oriented areas. Mace doubts this particular model will appeal to for-profit providers. “Clearly, there’s a subsidy going on here,” she said. Nonprofits with a source of income might be another matter.

Residents of Thistledown are responsible for keeping the place clean, and Garden Spot maintains the grounds. The residents buy and cook their own food, although they can frequent Garden Spot Village’s restaurants and access exercise facilities and activities. Three of the four women living in the house work and have cars.

Rose Marie Sheaffer, 78, who used to live above a flower shop, liked the co-living idea as soon as someone from her church mentioned it. It feels safer to her. Ruth Dunlap, 74, who had a house, and Esther Courtney, 70, who had a town house, were considerably less enthused when relatives told them about the new program. In time, though, the work and money needed for homeownership became less appealing. And the new Garden Spot place, with its big windows and granite countertops, looked awfully nice.

Social worker Jackie Berrios is available to referee disputes, but all agreed there hasn’t been much need for that. Berrios also vets new residents while giving the current residents a say about possible housemates.

Lindsey realizes that Thistledown is just a drop in a very big bucket, but he thinks it’s a start.

He thinks there is also demand from people with higher incomes. “We look at it as a prototype,” he said, “and we think it is scalable.”

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