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Ua pāpā 'ia ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i, 'a'ole paha?

By KEKEHA SOLIS

POSTED:



Synopsis: Was the Hawaiian language banned or not? Were children punished for speaking Hawaiian at home?

———

Aloha mai e nā makamaka heluhelu, 'elua nīnau i kupu a'e ma hope o ka heluhelu 'ana i kekahi mau 'ōlelo ma kahi waiho mana'o o lalo o Kauakūkalahale o kekahi pule i hala.

'O kekahi nīnau, 'o ia ka nīnau e kau a'ela ma luna, “Ua pāpā 'ia paha ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i, 'a'ole paha?” a 'o ka lua o ka nīnau, penei ia, “Ua ho'opa'i 'ia nā keiki no ke kama'ilio 'ana ma ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i ma ka hale?”

'O ka nīnau mua, he maika'i nō paha, 'oiai, lohe 'ia kahi waha ko'u ma 'ō a ma 'ane'i o ka 'āina e hō'ike ana, 'a'ole i pāpā 'ia ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i ma kēia pae 'āina. Ua pololei paha? Eia mai ke kānāwai i kau i ka makahiki 1896 e like me ia i kākau 'ia ma ka Nūpepa Kū'oko'a:

Kanawai 57. Pauku 30. O ka olelo Beretania no ka mea e a’o ia ai iloko o na kula Aupuni a me na kula kuokoa apau, eia nae, ma na wahi i makemakeia ae e a’o ia kekahi olelo e ae mawaho ae o ka Olelo Beretania, ua hiki no e hoomanaia ia a’o ana e ka Oihana mamuli o kona mau rula ponoi, na rula paha o ke kula, a i ole ia, mamuli o ke kauoha maoli ana pela. O kekahi mau kula i hooko ole e like me na mea i hoakakaia ma keia Pauku aole no lakou e ikeia a hoomaopopoia paha e ka Oihana.

I ka heluhelu 'ana aku o ko 'oukou mea kākau i ia paukū, ua mōakāka nō, ua pāpā 'ia, 'a'ole 'o ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i ka 'ōlelo e a'o 'ia ai nā papa ma nā kula aupuni. 'O ka 'ōlelo Beretania nō ka 'ōlelo o nā kula. Ua pāpā 'ia ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i? 'Ae, ua pāpā 'ia iho nō, ma nā kula na'e. He mea iki ia? 'A'ole loa.

Ua nui nā mo'olelo i lohe 'ia mai nā kūpuna mai no ko lākou ho'opa'i 'ia 'ana aku e ke kumu kula ma muli o ko lākou 'ōlelo 'ana i ka 'ōlelo makuahine a lākou, 'o ia ho'i ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i a i 'ole ia, no ka hiki 'ole 'ana iā lākou ke 'ōlelo haole ma hope mai o ia kānāwai.

'O kekahi mau ho'opa'i, 'o ke pa'i 'ia o ke po'o, 'o ke kākau i 500 laina, “'a'ole au e 'ōlelo Hawai'i ma ke kula,” 'o ka ho'oku'u 'ole 'ia e hele i ka lumi ho'opau pilikia a 'o ka hopena o ka pulu o ka lole, a he nui hou aku nā ho'opa'i. Akā, 'o kahi mea nui i maopopo, i ia manawa (ma hope o ia kānāwai), e kama'ilio 'ia aku ana nō ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i i nā keiki ma ka hale. Pehea e maopopo ai? 'O ia ka 'ōlelo a ia mau keiki e kama'ilio ana a 'o ka mea ho'i ia i kau ai ka ho'opa'i ma luna o lākou.

A pehea, e nā makamaka heluhelu, ua ho'opa'i 'ia aku nā keiki no ke kama'ilio Hawai'i 'ana aku ma ka hale?

'A'ole nō i lohe ko 'oukou mea kākau i ia 'ano mo'olelo, a no laila ke kuhi 'ia nei, 'a'ole pēlā. 'O ka mea i lohe 'ia, ma hope loa mai, 'o kekahi mau kūpuna paha i ho'opa'i 'ia,'a'ole lākou i a'o i kā lākou mau keiki a mo'opuna paha i ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i. '

Auhea 'oukou e nā makamaka heluhelu, inā ua 'ike a lohe paha i kahi mo'olelo no ke keiki i ho'opa'i 'ia no ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i 'ana ma kahi noho, e hō'ike mai.

'A'ole no ke kāpili 'ana aku i ka hewa ma luna o lākou, akā, no ka 'ike 'ana aku i ka mana o ia kānāwai.

———

This column is coordinated by Kawaihuelani Center for Hawaiian Language at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa.






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Ken_Conklin wrote:
A webpage examines this issue in detail, with numerous citations from historical and scholarly sources to prove the main points. "Was Hawaiian Language Illegal?"
http://tinyurl.com/6zrka

The main citations are from John E. Reinecke, "Language and Dialect in Hawaii: A Sociolinguistic History to 1935" and Albert J. Schutz, "The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies," (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994)

But here's a commonsense observation: Those who think that the English-only school law of 1896 killed or suppressed Hawaiian language should consider this: Today's Hawaiian immersion kids speak only Hawaiian in school. Do they grow up not also speaking English? Of course not. They learn English spotaneously because English is the dominant language of everyday life. So back in the day, the English-only rule for schools could never have killed Hawaiian language unless that language was already dying from natural causes. If Hawaiian had been the dominant language at home and on the streets when this law was passed in 1896, then the kids would have learned Hawaiian even though it was not used in school; in the same way that kids in today's Hawaiian immersion schools learn English even though the rule in their schools is Hawaiian-only.

Helena G. Allen published a book whose title clearly shows her political views: "The Betrayal of Liliuokalani" (Glendale CA, Arthur H. Clark Co., 1982). On page 111 she says the following in the context of discussing Lot Kamerhameha V and the early 1860s: "Verbal battles were raging throughout the islands of whether Hawaii should be bilingual or only English speaking. There was no thought that the language, official or otherwise, should be Hawaiian. With the loss of a language, as [Lorenzo] Lyons pointed out, comes the destruction of cultural connotations and denotations. It was, however, becoming fairly obvious that a non-English speaking person could have no important government post. The country people began to cry to have English taught in their schools, 'Or,' they said, 'we will be nothing.'"


on June 8,2013 | 05:01AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
Kenny goes off on a tangent trying in vain to detract from the fact that his white-skinned "heros" denied a people their freedom of speech. typical. EPIC FAIL.
on June 9,2013 | 04:59AM
Ken_Conklin wrote:
Hiki mai ka 'elele o ka loko 'ino.
on June 9,2013 | 12:03PM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
Your baseless allegations that children were beaten for speaking English at home has no foundation. You offer no source documents that support that claim. That claim is as empty as your head. Your disregard for the Hawaiian language's decline as stated in your comments above just add to that. I can provide you with source documents that support the fact that you despise Hawaiian regardless of your feigned fawning elsewhere, as you have previously insulted the language and its people in previous columns. SHALL I SEND YOU ANOTHER PRINTOUT OF YOUR PAST COMMENTS TO PROVE THAT?
on June 10,2013 | 04:36PM
holokanaka wrote:
konki, I totally agree with Helena G Allen on what she says on page 111 and a question: what is this "language..dieing of natural causes"? I have been to the Marquesas and they speak Marquesan and french-bilingual. Many nations are bilingual. I am not aware of any other colonized/stolen nations that do not speak their native language except for Hawaii, New Zealand, and Australia; all colonized/stolen by English speaking nations. Do you? Could it be that in these Islands of Hawaii that were intentionally overwhelmed by America (overthrow, provisional government, republic, annexation, immigration from america, military build-up, lies and brainwashing in the schools that these Islands were legally part of america, etc.) created an environment where in the language was suppressed? what do you think konki?
on June 9,2013 | 09:57AM
Ken_Conklin wrote:
Holokukae, you really need to read my webpage cited earlier. Your questions are answered there. In detail that is too lengthy for an online comment here. I call your attention to the bottom 40% of the webpage, especially the following items: English has become the dominant language throughout the world in international venues, and there are some multi-ethnic nations today where government imposes a "major" foreign language on all citizens by consent of all ethnicities to facilitate communication. The Economist (London), July 19, 2007 [about the dominance of English in the European Union]. New York Times, July 31, 2007 [In East Timor -- Portuguese, the newly designated language of the courts, the schools and the government — a language that most people in East Timor cannot speak.] National Review Online, April 9, 2010 [Thomas Sowell]. Pacific Islands Report [East-West Center, University of Hawaii], February 6, 2013 [Papua New Guinea] "Starting yesterday, all elementary and primary schools in the national education system started using English as language of instruction ... The new policy replaces the use of vernacular (lingua franca) including Tok Pisin and Motu as the language of instruction."
on June 9,2013 | 08:25PM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
This is irrelevant. You're skirting the issue of freedom of speech and the child abuse that happened in your beloved Republic of Hawaii schools. You're defending your white-skinned heros for denying others' freedom of speech and beating children for speaking their native language. You're un-American and a promoter of child abuse.
on June 10,2013 | 02:36AM
Ken_Conklin wrote:
Epic fail
on June 10,2013 | 08:30AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
Yes, your refusal to admit that after 1896 people wanted to speak the very language that you claim was dying and were punished for their attempts to do so is indeed an epic fail. Obviously it was not dying fast enough for you and your racist whiteisright white-skinned heros, so they had to help it along. You still are trying to justify the denial of "equality for all" that you SAY you support. Your sense of logic lacks both sense and logic- it is just a conundrum of contradictions.
on June 10,2013 | 04:20PM
holokanaka wrote:
"english/white has become the dominant language throughout the world" isn't that the goal of the white people with their colonizations/imperialism/stealing of other peoples land to be that dominating influence in the world? and again what is the problem with bi-lingual?
on June 10,2013 | 07:49AM
Ken_Conklin wrote:
Holokukae, I made the mistake of thinking that maybe, just this once, you were asking a serious question and that a serious answer might be welcomed by you. I won't make that mistake again.
on June 10,2013 | 08:32AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
more of your narcissistic arrogance and condescension, like calling people red diaper dooper baby. Really mature there, Mr. PhD.
on June 10,2013 | 04:58PM
holokanaka wrote:
since the sources you cite does not and did not address the issues of today in regards to the true legal history of these Islands which of course you, konki, are very familiar with my question "what do you think" is directed to you personally. so again I ask do you think that the overthrow (not a revolution but a conspiracy). the pg, the republic?, the non annexation treaty, mass imigration from america to these Islands, mass military build up, brain washing/propaganda (americanization, these Islands were legally annexed by america) of the kids in the schools), brain washing of all peoples in these Islands that these Islands is legally part of america, etc had anything to do with the almost extinction of the Hawaiian language?
on June 10,2013 | 09:49PM
DiverDave wrote:
After the arrival of the missionaries and their tireless work at devising a only spoken Polynesian-Hawaiian language to a written one, they proceeded, by direction of the Kings, Kamehameha II, and the III, to start schools all over the islands. By the late 1840′s there were over 500 schools, and all taught exclusively in Polynesian-Hawaiian. Hawaii was then known as the third most literate area of the world, only behind Scotland, and New England. What a great job the missionaries did! But, it was Kamehameha IV who saw that Polynesian language was not useful to participating on the world stage as Polynesian was spoken no were else. In his first speech to a joint session of the Hawaii Legislature Kamehameha IV called for English to be taught in the schools and used throughout the islands. All speeches and bills in the Hawaiian Kingdom Legislature from the 1860′s up until the 1940′s in the Territorial Congress were spoken and printed in both English and Polynesian-Hawaiian. As the Kings continued to bring 10s of thousands of foreign workers here in order to fill their tax coffers there needed to be a common language used by all. English became that language.
on June 8,2013 | 10:37AM
holokanaka wrote:
thank you joker for pointing out that a Hawaiian,Kamehameha IV was a brilliant man and forward looking person. but what is this "as the Kings continued to bring 10s of thousands of foreign workers here in order to "fill their tax coffers" ...." so joker the mega sugar planters (ha*le) had nothing to do whatsoever with bringing these "foreign workers here?"
on June 8,2013 | 02:09PM
DiverDave wrote:
All immigrant workers had to be approved by the King's Board of Immigration. Planters did not just go and get a boat load of workers and bring them here. Kamehameha III, "The Great Capitalist" was all about making money and understood import and export duties quite well and the money these taxes would generate for the Kingdom. By the way your racism is showing again with your name calling.
on June 9,2013 | 09:31AM
holokanaka wrote:
so joker, are you saying the mega/white planters had nothing whatsoever to do with importation of immigrant workers?
on June 10,2013 | 07:33AM
DiverDave wrote:
It is obvious you have a "white" problem.
on June 10,2013 | 10:15AM
holokanaka wrote:
joker, you did not answer my question,
on June 10,2013 | 02:23PM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
Considering how fast the indigenous population was dying from the diseases brought by these outsiders, the Kingdom really had no other choice but to import labor. DiverDave is not one to paint a full picture, especially when he does not even know the basics.
on July 7,2013 | 04:31PM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
I love how you parroted out the same comment from months ago about literacy, because it is just another example of your glaring lack of education. In your original comment, you called New England a country, and now you changed it to "area" after someone pointed out your gaffe. Nevermind that the semantics are irrelevant to the fact that it is wrong either way. Hawaii was 2nd in literacy behind Sweden. Again, that is why it is a waste of time discussing anything specific with you, because you honestly know nothing specific to discuss.
on June 14,2013 | 08:14AM
DiverDave wrote:
Excerpt of Kamehameha IV’s speech given in English and Hawaiian at the opening of the Legislature, April 7, 1855: “It is of the highest importance, in my opinion, that education in the English language should become more general, for it is my firm conviction that unless my subjects become educated in this tongue, their hope of intellectual progress, and of meeting the foreigners on terms of equality, is a vain one”.
on June 8,2013 | 10:48AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
fail.
on June 9,2013 | 05:00AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
PS. He was referring to learning English as a subject, NOT learning subjects in English, brightness. That is why there were Hawaiian language schools all the way up to 1896, when your whiteisright ancestors forced schools to teach in English, whether they wanted to or not. So much for that freedom to practice your language and culture anytime and anywhere. *headslap!*
on June 10,2013 | 05:01PM
DiverDave wrote:
"Subjects" was another word for "citizens", duh!
on June 12,2013 | 11:37AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
too bad reading comprehension is not your strong point. If you were to reread what I wrote and the speech itself, you MAY be able to see the correlation. Nevertheless, you have offered in that one sentence the very reason why discussing anything with you in detail is a waste of time. You really lack the educational background to discuss what you purport to know.
on June 14,2013 | 08:07AM
DiverDave wrote:
It is you that has a "reading comprehension" problem. Once again you are so arrogant as to tell a King that ruled Hawaii what he should have wanted. He wanted his subjects to learn and speak English plain and simple.
on June 30,2013 | 11:00AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
Discussing anything with you is a waste of time and that 2nd sentence is the proof, since putting words into the king's mouth is what YOU are trying to do. AGAIN - SO MUCH FOR PRACTICING ONE'S CULTURE ANYTIME AND ANYWHERE as you keep saying- you accept as justified the child abuse that happened in Hawaii schools after English was forced upon the population. moreover, I never used the word SHOULD, and I certainly never told one of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Hawaii anything since they all passed away 3 generations before I was born. You ARE a twít, just like Haunani-Kay Trask called you years ago. Lastly, you posted this inane nonsense a full 3 weeks after the article, and yet, you complained months ago about how I REposted my comments from previous columns. You are a hypocrite, AND you do not know history or the Hawaiian language enough to demand that people with genuine knowledge debate you. Next, you will be arguing with the CDC about the latest influenza viruses.
on July 7,2013 | 04:25PM
holokanaka wrote:
...
on June 8,2013 | 02:34PM
Ken_Conklin wrote:
Holokukae, that was the most logical, coherent comment you have ever made. Congratulations!
on June 10,2013 | 08:33AM
holokanaka wrote:
ouch!!!!
on June 10,2013 | 09:25PM
holokanaka wrote:
///
on June 8,2013 | 04:03PM
DiverDave wrote:
Once again, point, set, match! on both of you. What cat got your tongues? All this Polynesian-Hawaiian language stuff that you David Rogers and you holokanaka try to say somehow racist white people "stole" from Polynesians here is and always will be false. The decisions made by the Kings and Queen, and no one else, led to English being the predominant language here in Hawaii.
on June 9,2013 | 09:45AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
yet another one of your antagonistic lame jokes that's really not funny at all. You are just promoting child abuse with both your SA accounts, Kenny.
on June 10,2013 | 02:37AM
holokanaka wrote:
"white people stole". gee joker didn't the white people/ america already admit that they "stole" the lands from the Hawaiians? try read the 1993 apology resolution.
on June 10,2013 | 07:39AM
DiverDave wrote:
You guys are just too funny. David Rogers talks of child abuse, and holokanaka wants to change the topic a third time. LOL Answer this, who made the decision to speak and teach English here in Hawaii? Not the missionaries, not white farmers, and not the United States. The decision was made by the Monarchy starting with Kam IV, and continued for the 40 years until the revolution of 1893. You guys always want to make things racial because with you guys it's all about race. That would make you what?
on June 10,2013 | 10:31AM
holokanaka wrote:
joker, you are the one who said "stole from the Polynesian" not me. I showed you that america all ready admitted that. so what do you mean "change the topic"?
on June 10,2013 | 02:28PM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
At NO TIME in the history of the Kingdom did anyone make a law that English was the only language of instruction and at no time were children beaten for speaking Hawaiian. That came only as the Republic of Hawaii came into being at the hands of your whiteisright racist ancestors. The fact that you refuse to acknowledge the child abuse is just a passive, "look-the-other-way" acceptance of it on your part. Oh and one more thing, I am still waiting for that lawsuit you threatened me with.
on June 10,2013 | 04:26PM
DiverDave wrote:
English is not the only language of instruction in Hawaii. You are wrong again. This is not the Republic of Hawaii that was made up of by a majority of Polynesian-Hawaiians, and who's legislature was made up mostly of Polynesians. You just are another Walter Murray Gibson, that's what you are. LOL
on June 12,2013 | 11:43AM
holokanaka wrote:
"republic of Hawaii that was made up of by a majority of Polynesians". gee joker didn't the republic include all peoples born in these Islands as people/subjects of these Islands as you like to criticize the Kingdom from including as subjects? if the republic did include all peoples born here then the Polynesians would not be a majority. it seems hypocritical of you to criticize the Kingdom and not the republic, don't you?
on June 12,2013 | 09:55PM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
The original article is about the past. My comment above is about the past. Your "retort", if you can call it that, is all in the present. Your inability to communicate effectively is stunning. Again, this is just another example of why discussing anything with you in specifics is an absolute waste of time.
on June 14,2013 | 08:10AM
Leinanij wrote:
In the Hawaiian Journal of History, vol. 34 ( 2000), Paul F. Nahoa Lucas states: In 1896, three years after the overthrow of the monarchy, the newly created Republic of Hawai‘i enacted a law requiring that English be the medium of instruction in all public and private schools. That law provided: The English language shall be the medium and basis of instruction in all public and private schools, provided that where it is desired that another language shall be taught in addition to the English language, such instruction may be authorized by the Department, either by its rules, the curriculum of the schools, or by direct order in any particular instance. Any schools that shall not conform to the provisions of this section shall not be recognized by the Department. As set forth in the language of the 1896 law, although schools had the option not to participate, nonparticipating schools would not continue to be recognized and thus would not receive government funding. As a direct result of the 1896 law, the number of Hawaiian-medium schools dropped drastically from a high of 150 in 1880 to zero in 1902. Based largely on the 1896 law and its accompanying government educational policies, the territorial period was marked by the open suppression of Hawaiian in the public schools.
on June 17,2013 | 12:56PM
DiverDave wrote:
Again Leinanij, the majority of the legislature's members of the Republic of Hawaii were Polynesians. If they didn't want English to be the main language they simply would have voted it down. Polynesians made up the largest ethinic voting block in the islands up until the 1940's. In other words, they were in control and so they are responsible for the final change to English here. They, the Polynesians, wanted English to be the main language here or they wouldn't have voted for it.
on June 30,2013 | 10:36AM
Terii_Kelii wrote:
o.... m.... g.... There you go again posting replies weeks after the original column was published. This is the very same thing I did, but YOU called ME unethical and all sorts of other nonsense. Hypocrite much? BTW, the legislature for the Republic of Hawaii was nothing more than a bunch of mouthpieces for the oligarchy that oppressed the general population. They did NOT truly represent the will of the citizen, especially since the indigenous Hawaiians were marginalized already. Everyone knows that. Stop trying to portray a few as representatives of the majority, when that was not how the leaders of the Republic came into power in the first place. You are a twít, just as Haunani-Kay Trask called you, KennyKKonklin/DiaperDave.
on July 27,2013 | 04:43PM
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